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A glossary of science-related words.

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The middle section of the small intestine, about 2–3 m in length, where chemical breakdown of food is completed.

Joint European Torus (JET)

The Joint European Torus (JET) is a nuclear fusion plasma physics experimental facility located in Oxfordshire in the UK. The core structure of the facility is a tokamak reactor, within which fusion reactions are made to occur.


The international system unit of electrical, thermal and mechanical energy. One joule is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 239 grams of water by 1 °C. It was named after James Prescott Joule who discovered that heat is a type of energy

junk DNA

An older term for the regions of DNA on the genome that lie between genes. Junk DNA was once thought to have little or no function. Now, it is thought that these regions may have significant roles in the control of gene expression.


The geological period between Triassic and Cretaceous. It lasted from about 200 million years ago until 146 million years ago. Worldwide, dinosaurs were common, and the first birds appeared.